[215] According to David Roberts' analysis published by Foreign Policy, Belhaj – a "politically radioactive personality" – met with NATO officials at the end of August 2011 "under Qatar auspices. Journalists were prevented from travelling to the village of Dafniya and were turned back at rebel-held checkpoints. [142][145] The army withdrew from the city of Bayda. There have been various disagreements and strife between local militia and tribes, including fighting on 23 January 2012 in the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid, leading to an alternative town council being established and later recognized by the National Transitional Council (NTC). [303][304] On 24 March, NATO agreed to take control of the no-fly zone, while command of targeting ground units remained with coalition forces. Directed by Valérie Donzelli. "[252], The Guardian described journalism in Gaddafi's Libya as "North Korea with palm trees". [97] For example, the only sewage facility in Benghazi was over 40 years old, and untreated sewage has resulted in environmental problems. Gaddafi said that he had not yet ordered the use of force, and threatened that "everything will burn" when he did. On 18 February, police and army personnel later withdrew from Benghazi after being overwhelmed by protesters. Watch Queue Queue. [196] In Tripoli, "death squads" of mercenaries and Revolutionary Committees members reportedly patrolled the streets and shot people who tried to take the dead off the streets or gather in groups. Marchers hurled Molotov cocktails in a downtown square in Benghazi, damaging cars, blocking roads, and hurling rocks. NATO and the rebels rejected the offer, and NATO soon resumed bombardment of Tripoli. and rebels began forming their own government. [322] On 5 September, Libyan NTC spokesman, Abdulrahman Busin, said the NTC has hard evidence that Gadhafi bought arms from China. "[215], The three columnists reported anonymous sources described as "people familiar with the shipments" who confirmed that 18 weapons shipments were delivered to rebel forces between spring and summer 2011, mostly independently from the mediation of the National Transitional Council. An injured seven-year-old in a hospital was the victim of a car crash, according to a note passed on surreptitiously by a nurse. [215], According to NTC-allied officials interviewed by The Wall Street Journal, a few key figures facilitated Qatar's weapons and aid to flow directly to the rebels. [349] Others doubt this on account of both legal and factual considerations. [119] In 1979, some of the Revolutionary Committees had eventually evolved into self-appointed, sometimes zealous, enforcers of revolutionary orthodoxy. [234], In October 2011 it was reported that the South African government was investigating the possibility that Gaddafi hired South African mercenaries to help him escape the besieged city of Sirte, where he was ultimately caught. [99] Some Libyans said that they had found abandoned torture chambers and devices that had been used in the past. Teachers and engineers set up a committee to collect weapons. A humanitarian ship docked in harbour of Misrata in April to begin the evacuation of stranded migrants. Journal of Democracy, 22(3), 35–48. [218] According to the Reuters report, Qatar was already marketing crude petroleum from oil fields in the territories controlled by the rebels and had sent "gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gas" in the same areas. [142], In a statement released after clashes in Benghazi, a Libyan official warned that the Government "will not allow a group of people to move around at night and play with the security of Libya". Libya, country located in North Africa comprising three historical regions: Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. On 19 March 2011, exactly eight years later to the day, it was the French president’s turn to rain down bombs over Libya, once again claiming it was to bring democracy. [103] The New York Times pointed to Gaddafi's relatives adopting lavish lifestyles, including luxurious homes, Hollywood film investments, and private parties with American pop stars. [74], The NTC has functioned as an interim legislature during the transitional period. Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem and Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa fled Libya, with the latter defecting to the UK. [168] Rebel group primarily initiated from Misrati, Zentan and Derna. ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", "Летало ли белорусское оружие в Ливию и Кот-д'Ивуар? In 2006, an initiative was adopted for providing people with low incomes investment portfolios amounting to $30,000 to be deposited with banks and companies. His speech was said to have caused a stir. It took Predator drones about three weeks from the start of NATO’s war against Moammar Gadhafi to arrive in the skies over Libya. [87] Child marriage was banned, and women enjoyed equality of equal pay for equal work, equal rights in divorce and access to higher education rose from 8% in 1966 to 43% in 1996, equal to that of men. Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council, 2010-2011 16. See, e.g., Kolb, Robert and Hyde, Richard. Chair: Professor Mats Berdal, Director, Conflict, Security and Development Research Group (CSDRG) & Programme Director, MA in Conflict, Security and Development. [381] Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya, notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against Gaddafi. [81] While placing relatives and loyal members of his tribe in central military and government positions, he skilfully marginalized supporters and rivals, thus maintaining a delicate balance of powers, stability and economic developments. Obama approves airstrikes against Libya, March 19, 2011. ", "На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны", "Белорусские военные позволяют армии Каддафи противостоять НАТО", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "There Was No Libyan Peaceful Protest,     :      Information Clearing House: ICH", "UN silent despite no basis for NATO's illegal war on Libya - Scoop News", "Libyan rebel commander admits his fighters have al-Qaeda links", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Libyan_Civil_War_(2011)&oldid=6891293, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, 5,904–6,626 opposition fighters and supporters killed (other estimates: see, 3,309–4,227 soldiers killed (other estimates: see. [215] Dagher, Levinson, and Coker also wrote that some government officials in Tripoli claimed that Ghaddafi's fall did not cause those shipments to be suspended. There were many small protests of about 300-500 people throughout January. The effort was initially largely led by the United States. [376] In February, Italian Foreign Minister Frattini expressed his concerns that the amount of Libyan refugees trying to reach Italy might reach between 200,000 and 300,000 people. Members of the Gaddafi family took flight to Algeria. For the 18th-century civil war in Libya, see, Christopher S. Chivvis, Keith Crane, Peter Mandaville, Jeffrey Martini, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDavis1990 (. [183] The exact same day, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting reported that the International Criminal Court estimated 10,000 had been killed. Milanovic, Marko and Hadzi-Vidanovic, Vidan. Mai 2011. [340], In January 2013, the new Libyan government, based on figures still being checked, estimated the number of killed to be actually far lower than previous estimates, with 4,700 rebel supporters and a similar number of Gaddafi supporters killed during the conflict. [150], Later in February, Gaddafi stated that the rebels were influenced by Al-Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden, and hallucinogenic drugs put in drinks and pills. [99] Likewise, supply lines were run by volunteers. Libya will show that these belonged to Al Qaeda. This is one reason why Gaddafi needs foreign fighters,"[227] Rumours of Serbian mercenary pilots participating on the side of Gaddafi appeared early in the conflict. [188], In a 17 March 2011 interview, shortly before the military intervention, Muammar Gaddafi's son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that "armed militia" fighters in Benghazi were killing children and terrorizing the population. "[209] A Libyan official reported to Libyan television that security forces arrested Tunisians and Egyptians that were "trained to sow chaos. [139], The protests, unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 2 February 2011. 03/19/2019 12:04 AM EDT. The Gaddafi government then announced a ceasefire, but fighting and bombing continued. Libye : les crimes ne resteront pas impunis. Libya's Jamahiriya News Agency reported that the detained men were part of a "foreign network (and were) trained to damage Libya's stability, the safety of its citizens and national unity. These elections were planned to coincide with the Jamahiriya's usual periodic elections for the Popular Committees, Basic People's Committees, Basic People's Congresses, and General People's Congresses, in 2010. [325][326][327] On 12 September, Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao's People's Republic of China government also recognized the NTC of Libya as the only Legal regime in Libya. Legal qualification of an armed conflict determines which rules of international humanitarian law apply to the conduct of the parties during that conflict. Some evacuations were successful to Malta or via land borders to Egypt or Tunisia; other attempts were hindered by tarmac damage at Benghazi's airport or refusals of permission to land in Tripoli. [351][352] Others maintain the opposite position, arguing that the available legal tests for "deinternationalisation" are unpersuasive and introduce vague and politicized criteria that cannot be satisfactorily considered in the heat of the battle. [274] On 20 April, Mohammed spoke in front of the European Parliament calling for more support for Libya. Muammar Gaddafi evaded capture until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killed in Sirte. There was also the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group[169] and the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade which has been held responsible for the assassination of top rebel commander General Abdul Fatah Younis. [244] In the city of Misrata, rebel leaders imposed restrictions on the foreign media. He also blamed alcohol. [203], In June 2011, a more detailed investigation by Amnesty International found that many of the allegations against Gaddafi and the Libyan state turned out to be false or to lack any credible evidence, saying that rebels at times appeared to have knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence. In 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book. By ANDREW GLASS. He also promised that international monitors would be included to ensure fair elections. The Chadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a statement said that "Chadians are not sent or recruited in Chad to serve as mercenaries in Libya," and that allegations about Chadian mercenaries were "likely to cause serious physical and material harm to Chadians residing in Libya. [159], The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎) was established on 27 February to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. [77][78] While he was popularly seen as a demagogue in the West, Gaddafi always portrayed himself as a statesman-philosopher. The New York Times reported rebel leaders as saying they believed the only areas still under Gaddafi's control, other than the immediate neighbourhood of Bab al-Azizia, were al-Hadhba and Abu Salim, the latter including the Rixos Hotel where a group of foreign journalists had been trapped for days. The demonstrations were protesting against the Government of Libya and its leader Muammar al-Gaddafi. The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and foreign supported groups seeking to oust his government. It estimated that during the first few days of the conflict, 100 to 110 people were killed in Benghazi and 59 to 64 were killed in Bayda. War wounded were estimated as at least 50,000, of which about 20,000 were serious injuries, but this estimate was expected to rise. They live in terror. [62], On 8 September, Naji Barakat, the Health Minister of the National Transitional Council, stated that about half of an estimated 30,000 dead were believed to have been pro-Gaddafi fighters. [88] Homelessness was insignificant, with literacy rates estimated at 88%, and average life expectancy rose from 51/54 in 1969 to 74/77. [109], A national vote on Gaddafi's plan was held in 2009, where Libya's people's congresses, collectively the country's highest authority, voted to delay implementation. Nothing else. Saif al-Arab Gaddafi †[22] You cannot escape He also stated that NATO offered to drop the ICC charges against him and his father if they accept a secret deal, an offer they rejected. Piers Morgan Explores the Man at the Center of Libya's Uprising", "With NATO's Operation Odyssey Dawn Launch, Strategic Dimensions Come into Focus", "Libyan Royal Family Seeking Swedish Asylum", "Benghazi, Cradle of Revolt, Condemns Gaddafi", "Protesters Defy Gaddafi as International Pressure Mounts (1st Lead)", "Middle Eastern Media See End of Gaddafi", "Libya: Gaddafi Forces Attacking Rebel-Held Benghazi", "Libya: urgent to apply the rules of war", "Gaddafi relatives offered Malta Armed Forces bribes – Clinton ally", "Canada turns commitment into clout in Libya", "Libya: U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles Hit Targets in Libya", "Libya: US, UK and France attack Gaddafi forces", "French Fighter Jets Deployed over Libya", "France Uses Unexplosive Bombs in Libya: Spokesman", "Polled N.J. [232], On 7 April, Reuters reported that soldiers loyal to Gaddafi were sent into refugee camps to intimidate and bribe black African migrant workers into fighting for the Libyan state during the war. [306] On 9 June 2011, some negotiators from NTC arrived in Beijing to have negotiations with the Chinese government. L'intervention militaire de 2011 en Libye est une opération militaire multinationale sous l'égide de l'Organisation des Nations unies (ONU), qui s'est déroulée entre le 19 mars 2011 et le 31 octobre 2011, dont l'objectif est la mise en œuvre de la résolution 1973 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies . [70], Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. [360][361], Another humanitarian issue was refugees fleeing the crisis. He was arrested on 1 February by plain-clothes police officers, and charged on 3 February with injuring someone with his car. In Bayda, unconfirmed reports indicated that the local police force and riot-control units had joined the protesters. [338] Later, rebel spokesman Abdul Hafiz Ghoga reported that the death toll reached 8,000. [115][116] Until the mid-1980s, Libya's intelligence service conducted assassinations of Libyan dissidents around the world. [246] A journalist working for The Guardian and another Brazilian journalist have been detained. According to NBC News Chief Foreign Correspondent, Richard Engel, who entered Libya and had reached the city of Tobruk on 22 February 2011 was quoted as saying, "the protest movement is no longer a protest movement, it's a war. Libya had welfare systems allowing access to free education, free healthcare, and financial assistance for housing, and the Great Manmade River was built to allow free access to fresh water across large parts of the country. They violently protested against the government. Amnesty International initially reported that writers, intellectuals and other prominent opposition sympathizers disappeared during the early days of the conflict in Gaddafi-controlled cities, and that they may have been subjected to torture or execution. A provisional refugee camp set up at Ras Ajdir with a capacity for 10,000 was overflowing with an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 refugees. [251], Gaddafi's aides also organized tours for foreign journalists in Tripoli. [58][59], An independent newspaper called Libya appeared in Benghazi, as well as rebel-controlled radio stations. Then, on March 6, launched a counter-offensive against Rebels. Separately, the ICRC advised it was handing over its operations at the Choucha Camp to the Tunisian Red Crescent. The dead and injured were piled into vehicles and taken away, possibly for cremation. Rebels took the city of Ghadames near the borders of Tunisia and Algeria on 29 August. At the same time, the opposition said that 6,500 people had died. [360], The Sunday Telegraph reported on 11 September that almost the entire population of Tawergha, a town of about 10,000 people, had been forced to flee their homes by anti-Gaddafi fighters after their takeover of the settlement. The later British parliament's Foreign Affairs Select Committee inquiry concluded that by summer 2011 British policy had become one of regime change. [328] When China and Russia had abandoned their support of Gaddafi, a spokesman of the NTC of Libya said because of their long time support of Gaddafi, it will be very hard for a Chinese, Russian or Indian oil companies to acquire new exploration contracts.[329]. ), reported that between 1,914 and 3,466 people were killed during the 2011 fighting. "[198], In May 2011, International Criminal Court (ICC) chief prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo estimated that 500–700 people were killed by security forces in February 2011, before the rebels took up arms. In September, the Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid was besieged by rebels, who reported that Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam was hiding in the city. [133] Social media played a central role in organizing the opposition.